Bogachev Andrey Aleksandrovich, Student, Penza State University (40, Krasnaya street, Penza, Russia), E-mail: Skromnyy94@bk.ru
Gavrilova Natal'ya Aleksandrovna, Student, Penza State University (40, Krasnaya street, Penza, Russia), E-mail: Natashagavril121314@icloud.com
Kurdyukov Evgeniy Evgen'evich, Candidate of pharmaceutical sciences, senior lecturer, sub-department of general and clinical pharmacology, Penza State University (40, Krasnaya street, Penza, Russia), E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Semenova Elena Fedorovna, Candidate of biological sciences, professor, senior staff scientist, sub-department of general and clinical pharmacology, Penza State University (40, Krasnaya street, Penza, Russia), E-mail: email@example.com
Ponomareva Tat'yana Andreevna, Student, Penza State University (40, Krasnaya street, Penza, Russia), E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Background. Flax seed – Linum usitatissimum L. family. Flax – Linaceae, widely used in traditional medicine. The main group of biologically active compounds (BAS) are fatty acids, including linoleic, linolenic and oleic. Due to the presence of polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega acids), it has a wide range of pharmacological effects: hypocholesterolemic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant. Currently, a large number of new flax varieties have been obtained, the seeds of which have significant differences. In modern medicine, flax seeds are used as sources of polysaccharides, while not taking into account the fatty acid composition and the ratio of ω-6 and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In the last decade, a large number of new varieties with different amino acid and fatty acid composition have been developed, and the content of these biologically active compounds has not been sufficiently studied. In this regard, it seems relevant to study the fatty acid composition of flax seeds. Objective – to study the component and fatty-acid composition of seeds of modern varieties of flax seed.
Materials and methods. As a material for the study, samples of powdered raw flax of six varieties were used: Istok, linola +, Severny, Brestsky, Karabalyksky, Belochka. Fat content was determined in the Soxhlet apparatus method (skim balance); protein – titration in the Kjeldahl apparatus; fiber – to Henneberg and Shimano in the modification of TIN; phosphorus content – by combustion at Pinevich modification Kurchaeva spectrophotometrically at a wavelength of 670 nm. The study of the fatty acid composition of flax seed oil was performed by gas-liquid chromatography after preliminary conversion of fatty acids to methyl esters according to GOST 31665–2012.
Results. As a result of the analysis, it was found that flax seeds differ in oil content and protein content, the total number of which varies on average from 55 to 75 % of the total weight. The maximum amount of protein was found in the raw materials of Linol + (25,97 %), Belochka (25,10 %) and fatty oil – Istok (46,52 %), Severny (45,17 %), and Brest (44,25 %) varieties. Sixteen fatty acids were identified and their quantitative composition was established. Under the same growing conditions, the content of basic fatty acids is varietally specific with a different ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The oil is characterized by a high content of unsaturated fatty acids (75–90 %), including polyunsaturated (60–80 %). From unsaturated fatty acids, linolenic, linoleic, and oleic acids predominate; from marginal ones, palmitic.
Conclusions. Flax seeds have a high nutritional value due to the high content of protein and fatty oil, the total amount of which is 60–75 %. The seeds of the following varieties have the highest oil content: Istok (46,52 %), Severny (45,17 %), and Brestsky (44,25 %). The largest amount of fiber contains raw oilseed flax varieties: Brest (10,91 %), Karabalyk (11,60 %), Belochka (11,70 %). In terms of palmitic acid content, the leading fatty oil is Linola + (6,682 %), stearic – Brest (5,862 %), oleic – Belochka (27,987 %), linoleic – Istok (69,161 %), linolenic – Brest (55,637 %).
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